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\(\bullet\) Sometimes, when we want to cite a reference we find that the title or author(s) has some special characters, such as: Chloé, Şehnaz, Renée, Gürçağlar, and André.

\(\bullet\) Actually, there are three approaches can be used to do that:

  1. Using math-mode characters, such as those presented in: http://al-roomi.org/symbols/basic
  2. Using text-mode characters, such as those presented in: http://al-roomi.org/symbols/text-mode
  3. Using both \(\rightarrow\) math-mode and text-mode characters

 \(\bullet\) In the following lines, both approaches are described through some Minimum Working Examples (MWEs):


 

I. Math-Mode (not preferred):

 \(\bullet\) This approach is not preferred, because the letters in the math-mode are italic, which means its format is not nice.

\(\bullet\) Thus, if someone wants to use this approach, then he could use it for subscripted/superscripted letters and some special symbols.

\(\bullet\) The \(\LaTeX\) code (I'm using WinEdt ver. 8.0 as a \(\LaTeX\) editor) is as follows:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) One of the BibTeX entries (I'm using JabRef Program ver. 2.9.2) is shown below:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) Excuting the previous two files gives the following output:

Minimum Working Example

Download this \(\LaTeX\) File


 

II. Text-Mode (preferred in the most cases):

\(\bullet\) As we have seen from the first approach, there are many weaknesses can be faced with the math-mode approach. 

\(\bullet\) Now, let's see how the text-mode approach can perform...

\(\bullet\) The \(\LaTeX\) code is as follows:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) The preceding BibTeX entry becomes:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) Excuting the previous two files gives the following output:

Minimum Working Example

Download this \(\LaTeX\) File


 

III. Text/Math-Mode (always preferred):

\(\bullet\) Suppose there is a mathematical expression in the title of one of the references used in the preceding examples. 

\(\bullet\) Here, we have to use both the math- and text-mode approaches.

\(\bullet\) Now, let's see how the text/math-mode approach can perform...

\(\bullet\) The \(\LaTeX\) code is as follows:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) The preceding BibTeX entry becomes:

Minimum Working Example

\(\bullet\) Excuting the previous two files gives the following output:

Minimum Working Example

Download this \(\LaTeX\) File

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